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Solar City Successfully IPOs, Shows Double-Digits Gains on First Day

Solar City Successfully IPOs, Shows Double-Digits Gains on First Day


A Shinning Example Cleantech IPOs have gotten a lot of hype in the past, but they've rarely delivered for investors (at least so far -- maybe some now public cleantech companies will bounce back later). Solar City, the largest solar installer in the U.S. and brainchild of Elon Musk, might be different. The company went public yesterday, and shares are already up from the initial IPO price of $8 to over $12 right now, a more than 50% gain in a day. Not bad!





At the current price, this gives SolarCity a market valuation of $880 million, and Elon Musk's 31% share is worth about $272 million.

Part of what makes SolarCity different from other cleantech startups is its business model, which actually benefits from the competition and falling prices in the solar industry:


Instead of playing in the cutthroat world of solar-panel production, SolarCity, founded in 2006, focused on leasing solar panels to consumers and businesses and making this process easier. It helps people calculate how much money they can expect to save with solar panels, sets up the financing, and coordinates the installation of the panel. Through the first nine months of the year, SolarCity brought in $103 million of sales. Its business has been booming, although the company has yet to turn a profit and is likely to see a number of the state and federal tax credits from which it benefits decline over time.

Lyndon Rive, the CEO of SolarCity and Elon Musk's cousin, had this to say about previous solar IPOs: “Clean energy has taken a big hit, primarily on the solar side, because of a lot of the companies there were producing a commodity,” Lyndon says, referring to the solar-panel and substrate makers. “The stocks were overhyped because of overdemand and undersupply, and then supply caught up. This should not be a measurement of the market’s willingness to adopt clean energy. The market adoption is almost doubling every year.”

So far SolarCity has installed solar systems on over 45,000 buildings and doesn't seem like its slowing down. In fact, funds raised in the IPOs could be used to accelerate the rate of growth of the company, and possibly expand operations to other countries.

Solar Generator-Emergency Electrical Power Back Up

Solar Powered Backup System Provides Instant Electrical Power In Any Outage Or Disaster. Even Better...
Backup Kit Produces An Endless Supply Of Electricity For Free!



Are You Ready For Unexpected Power Outages?

If you have ever wanted to have an emergency "backup" system that supplies continuous electrical power, this will be the most important message you will ever read.

Here is why.

There is now a completely portable (and ultra-high efficient) solar power generator which produces up to 1800 watts of household electricity on demand when you need it most. News of this "solar backup generator" (it's the first "off-the-grid" breakthrough in 50 years) is spreading like wildfire all across the country!

Why?

The answer is easy. You see, this solar generator is extremely powerful and yet very simple to use. It produces continuous electricity and runs with absolutely no noise whatsoever. It emits no fumes. But the best part about the solar generator is that it...

Generates Free Electricity!

The unit then stores the power for your use when you need it. We all face natural disasters, with hurricanes, tornadoes, snow and ice storms cutting off electrical power to millions of Americans each year.

Then there are man-made disasters and outages. Blackouts and rolling brownouts are becoming common in many parts of the United States as our politicians herd us off into third-world status. And never forget the possibility of a terrorist attack directed at a few of our nation's power plants. Since the nation's power grids are all "connected," crippling one plant starts a cascading downward spiral of darkness.

Your neighbors will be clueless when it finally does happen, expecting the government to "do something" to get their precious cable TV back on. The truth is, we are extremely vulnerable to all kinds of meltdowns that can create temporary or even permanent electrical outages. That's why if you are one of the few Americans that have eyes to see and ears to hear with respect to the hard times ahead. In fact, you can also expect rising electrical rates very soon, as promised by the new administration. That's why you need to...

Have A Backup System In Place!

The Solar generator kit consists of three main components which work together to create a very efficient home power plant. The massive "generator-backup", the high efficiency solar panel, and the charge controller. In fact, when you compare a solar generator to a gas generator, the difference is pretty remarkable. Here's why. First, gas generators make an incredible amount of racket... if you can even get them started. I say that because in this part of the country (Northern Illinois), the time of year we are likely to lose our electricity is in the winter, during an ice or snow storm.

Generally the wind breaks the power lines, which get covered with ice and snow. Typically, when you lose power here, you go to the garage, roll out the generator and start pulling the cord. You pull and pull some more, all because your generator has been sitting in the cold and the carburetor is playing hard to get. This is not a lot of fun in the dark.

Another reason to avoid gas generators is that you just can't run one in your house. The fumes from a gas generator force you to run it outside and rely on a lot of cords coming through windows or doors to bring the power inside. Again, this is assuming you can get your gas generator started in the first place.

But the number one reason you don't want to be caught in a time of crisis with a gas generator is...

Gas Stations Can't Pump Gas Without Electricity!

Yes. It's true. When the power goes out, you're left with whatever gas you have on hand because the gas station pumps all run on electricity. A few gallons stored in a gas can means a little electricity for a little while, then it's quickly back toblack.

Look... I could go on and on about life without electricity and what nightmare gas generators can be. But here's the bottom line. Solutions From Science is offering an amazing power generating system that can provide plenty of electrical power in the event of an outage or emergency. And the best part is that you can have the power safely in your house.

It's the perfect emergency backup for troubled times at any location.
When the lights do go out at your house...
you'll be darn glad you didn't hesitate.



And, Solutions From Science can put one of these "backup" Solar Generators in your hands very quickly and affordably so you'll be prepared in any crisis that comes down the road.

A True Breakthrough In Home Power Generation!

Let me try to explain the features and benefits of our Solar Generator as simply as possible. If I could bring one over to your house and let you start plugging in appliances, you would immediately understand what all the fuss is about. But I can't do that. Here are some of the reasons you'll want a solar generator:
1)Maximum power in minimum time. - I cannot emphasize this enough. The solar generator can be set up in just a few minutes. Then, all you have to do is start plugging things in. It will run both AC & DC appliances anywhere... anytime

2)Back up power when you need it most - It's called a "solar backup" because it's designed to come to your rescue when power trouble starts and your lights go out. Run a small refrigerator (high efficient ones are best) to keep your food from going bad or even run a sump pump in the basement if you have to get rid of excess water.

3)Portable Power - If the going ever gets too tough where you are and you decide to "get the heck out of dodge," you simply throw it in the car and take off to a safer destination, knowing you have power wherever you go.

4)Replaces gas generators - No noise, no fumes, no maintenance and most importantly...no fuel required. Simply roll it to whatever location needs the power and start plugging in appliances. It has a massive maintenance-free battery as well as an indestructible outer case. (It weighs about 65 pounds.) It's a solid piece of equipment that will last a lifetime

5)Generates permanent power - The unit provides 1800 watts of electricity at peak power. That's enough to run many appliances in your house. The unit stores power and makes it available when you need it. The generator is recharged constantly by the sun allowing you to use the system and charging it at the same time. Many users choose to keep appliances plugged in permanently to reduce electrical costs and help pay for the unit

6)Multiple uses - You can use your solar backup to run essential appliances when emergencies arise. You can recharge phones; run shortwave radios, televisions, lights, fire place or furnace fans, as well as computers and printers. Plus, if you need to work in the woods at the cabin or in a boat, you can use the solar backup to run power tools, trimmers, blowers and coffee makers.

7)Plug and play means instant power - The emergency backup system comes ready to go. Just start plugging in your favorite household essentials...

8)Life-Saving Power When you need it most - Great for powering aquariums, CPAP machines, small refrigerators/freezers, alarm clocks, security systems, whatever you need to live comfortably when the power goes out.

9) Emergency Backup Power for Communications -Access the latest weather changes even when the rest of the neighborhood looses power. Powers AM/FM radios, televisions, shortwave radios, cell phones, computers, and other telecommunication devices.

10) Assembled in America - Our solar kits are assembled in the United States of America.


You'll feel a whole lot safer knowing you have a solar generator when the unexpected occurs. It could be in a storm, riot or meltdown. Unlike most "sheep-like" Americans, when the power goes out, you'll be ready. In fact, if you're like most Solar Generator owners, you'll even sleep a little better knowing you still have a very reliable source of electrical power.

How much is a "plug and play" Solar Generator? Well... One pastor friend of mine told me he couldn't even put a price on his backup system. For him it was peace of mind.

Loving Freedom
Means Getting
Off The Grid!


The retail price tag for this system is $2,197.00

But I'm not asking you to pay that much. Instead, I have negotiated a very special offer for our friends in the freedom movement:

Here's the Solar Generator Backup system we have put together for our friends. The system includes:

What Is Solar Radiation? How To Control Solar Radiation

What Is Solar Radiation? How To Control Solar Radiation


At this Blog post you will learn about various map of Solar radiation in the worlds, so you will able to more understand the radiation map of solar in the worlds. The solar energy impinging the surface of the earth is depicted below 
Basics of Solar Radiation
Radiation from the sun sustains life on earth and determines climate. The energy flow within the sun results in a surface temperature of around 5800 K, so the spectrum of the radiation from the sun is similar to that of a 5800 K blackbody with fine structure due to absorption in the cool peripheral solar gas (Fraunhofer lines).
This divides the world into five solar performance area based on yearly averages of daily hours of sunlight and temperature


Source : Globe Engineering Research
the red area is most powerful for Solar radiation power generation,
everyday there is plenty of energy from the sun hitting the earth but today those energy still doesn't have priority at the worlds, picture below taken from Nate Lewis of the California Institute of Technology, shown that six solar radiation power plant can produce about 20 Tera watts of electrical power. That would totally solve humanity's energy problem.

after we know the total energy average per years, we should known where is the total yearly energy capture potential of the site that determines the economical viability of installing a power plant.
 
this map have same with previous but more clearly and this map is for Solar thermal energy map, not solar radiation,

How does solar radiation affect the temperature of a roof surface and heat flow through the roof?


This solar radiation control fact sheet focuses on low-slope roofs for commercial buildings. The membranes or weatherproofing materials used for these roofs are opaque to solar radiation. When opaque roof surfaces are exposed to solar radiation, no solar radiation is directly transmitted through the roof. The sketch above in the heading depicts an opaque low-slope roof interacting with solar radiation. It illustrates that some of the sunlight is reflected away by the surface and the rest is absorbed. The fraction reflected is given by the solar reflectance of the surface, a number between 0 and 1 that applies to the solar part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Solar radiation includes the wavelength range from near ultraviolet to near infrared, spanning what is visible to the human eye. The sketch assumes a solar reflectance of about 0.85.
The solar radiation that is absorbed heats the surface. The absorbed energy is no longer solar energy. It is characterized by the temperature of the surface material, which is much lower than the equivalent solar temperature. Consequently, the surface emits radiation in the far infrared part of the spectrum. This infrared radiation is not to be confused with the reflected solar radiation. The amount emitted is in direct proportion to the surface's infrared emittance, a number between 0 and 1 that is generally different from the solar reflectance. A roof surface also exchanges energy by convection with the air above the roof and by conduction with the layer of the roof directly below the surface. Moisture effects, mainly evaporation and condensation of liquid water on the surface, are occasionally important for low-slope roofs.

The temperature of the roof surface is determined by a balance among energy gains and losses, including energy stored in the roof. The peak surface temperature strongly depends on the peak solar radiation and the solar reflectance of the surface. On a sunny day in late June, all of July or early August in the northern hemisphere, a black roof surface (solar reflectance less than 0.1) may reach peak temperatures exceeding 170°F (77°C). At the same time, a highly reflective white surface (solar reflectance greater than 0.8) could be less than 110°F (43°C).
For steady conditions, heat flow per unit area through a roof is given by the quotient of the temperature difference across the roof and the total thermal resistance of the roof. On a cloud-free day in the middle of summer for typical inside surface temperatures of 80°F (27°C), solar radiation control causes a decrease in the temperature difference across the roof from about 90°F to 30°F (from about 50°C to 17°C). If the total thermal resistance (R-value) of the materials present in the roof is small, a significant decrease in steady heat flux through the roof will occur. If the roof has significant thermal capacitance (thermal mass), absorbed energy will be stored in the roof and heat fluxes through the roof will be delayed and diminished, lessening the effect of solar radiation control. Cloudiness and other non-steady conditions also decrease the heat flux through the roof relative to the maximum steady value.





What is SOLAR AC (Air-Conditioner) SOLAR Air-Conditioner Specifications - How it is Work?

What is SOLAR AC (Air-Conditioner) SOLAR Air-Conditioner Specifications - How it is Work?

Our Solar Air-Conditioner absorbs solar energy to heat the inside medium by using a vacuum solar collector. The refrigerant from the compressor goes through the copper coil inside the collector and undertake a heat exchange. The refrigerant heated by the medium inside the solar collector will go through a cycle inside the system cooling and heating. We use a smaller compressor instead of standard compressors to run our system which saves electricity dramatically. A smaller compressor consumes much less electricity and works together with our solar collector to saving electricity. Goals of zero energy buildings include sustainable, green building technologies that can significantly reduce, or eliminate, net annual energy bills. The supreme achievement is the totally off the grid autonomous building that does not have to be connected to utility companies. In hot climates with significant degree days of cooling requirement, leading-edge solar air conditioning will be an increasingly important critical success factor.

SOLAR Air-Conditioner Specifications


Solar Air Conditions,
Works on Solar Energy upto 50% saving
Working in both day / night with same effeciency with solar energy

Basic working principle of solar air conditioner
There is a heat absorbing device in the solar collection conversion, which can switch the energy of light, heat, radiation of the environment into energy, which can assist compressor in doing the job of cooling. Moreover, the energy absorbed in the day time can be stored in the heat absorbing device, ensure the air conditioner to work normally day and night.
The solar energy air conditioners make use of the principle of light-sense point arouse and dispersing Photosynthetic, and the principle of reversible of chemistry energy, they fully adjust to absorb and store solar energy by the Binary mixture refrigerant of Solar collector layer, then through the cold assistants of the solar energy, they regulate the cold of the solar AC, therefore they can reach the best quality of saving electricity according to the requirements.

SOLAR Air-Conditioner  Saving Energy Specifications chart



Model/Capacity
BTU
Tons
Electric Consumption
Normal AC
Electric Consumption
Solar AC


Saving
Per Month
35GW
12000
1.00
1.3 KW
0.7 - 0.9 KW


120 - 180 KW
50 GW
18000
1.50
2.1 KW
1.2 - 1.47 KW


190 - 270 KW
70 GW
24000
 2.00
3.5 KW
1.7 - 2.4 KW


330 - 540 KW
90 GW
32000
2.66
4.5 KW
2.2 - 3.15 KW

405 - 690 KW
 100 GW
36000
 3.00
5.5 Kw
2.7 - 3.85 KW

495 - 840 KW
 70 LW - Floor
24000
 2.00
3.5 KW
1.7 - 2.4 KW

330 - 540 KW
120 LW - Floor
42000
3.50
5.5 Kw
2.7 - 3.85 KW

495 - 840 KW



History of Solar Energy - Solar Energy Advantage - Solar system Benefits and Installation



The solar energy advantages have attracted a number of people all over the world. Its benefits are increasing exponentially.The research and development work is still going on to make solar energy as a viable option to all.

People are interested to have a solar power unit on the rooftops to cater the need of energy.

But many of them still don’t know how to set up a good solar system and how much solar plates would be required. At Solar Shops Hub, we are always ready to provide sufficient and adequate information as per the demand of customers. They can consult our experts any time and get proper solution to know how to utilize solar energy.

Solar energy history took on a different turn in the nineteenth century when French inventor Auguste Mouchout developed a small solar steam engine in 1860. Although the project received initial support, this was discontinued due to the drop in the price of coal. The solar energy history of that century continued, however, with an ongoing interest from scientists. One of the outcomes of this was the development of the parabolic trough collector by John Ericsson in the United States, a type of thermal system which uses the suns rays to heat fluid which is then used to power a steam turbine generator.

Twentieth century solar energy history started off more slowly, but in 1921 Albert Einstein received the Nobel Prize for his research into the photoelectric effect. The development of solar photovoltaichis technology then saw a boost in the 1950s and 1960s due to the space race. Solar panels were used to generate electricity aboard satellites and space crafts. Further interest in renewable energy such as solar power was generated in the 1970s due to the Energy Crisis (OPEC oil embargo) causing the cost of solar energy to drop.

Today there is more solar energy history in the making with the development of new photovoltaic technologies, such as thin-film and organic photovoltaics, which could slash the prices of solar panels in coming years.
Solar power is produced by collecting sunlight and converting it into electricity. This is done by using solar panels, which are large flat panels made up of many individual solar cells. It is most often used in remote locations, although it is becoming more popular in urban areas as well. This page contains articles that explore advances in solar energy technology.






Alternative energy Sources : Utilizing Solar Energy in Pakistan - Consumers increasingly opt for solar energy power - News Report

Alternative energy Sources : Utilizing Solar Energy in Pakistan - Consumers increasingly opt for solar energy power - News Report

Importers of solar energy panels told that unbearable energy outages, high tariffs and heavy expenses on generators and Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) had left consumers with no option but to turn to alternative energy, particularly solar panels. They said Chinese solar panels were much cheaper compared to panels imported from Germany which were very expensive and did not come within the range of consumers. In a bid to promote alternative energy, the government has scrapped duty on import of solar energy systems.

“Sales of solar energy panels have increased about 40 per cent compared to winter of last year. Sunshine in Pakistan remains for approximately 10 hours a day, which is enough to produce 1,000 watts per square metre. Producing electricity from the sun is very easy,” said Nurani, who deals in solar products.

However, he pointed to corruption as a major hurdle, saying dry port authorities did not clear consignments until they were paid. “If the government controls this mafia, then the cost of solar panels will come down by up to 30 per cent.” Solar-powered tube wells, water pumps and vacuum tube collectors of Germany can be installed with an investment of Rs400,000 to Rs500,000, said Dr Anjum Muneer, Assistant Professor at the University of Agriculture Faisalabad, which is running a programme in assistance with Germany to promote solar energy.

The government should subsidise solar energy products for their promotion, adding the technology might be costly and unaffordable for the consumers, but it would give life-time savings and benefits to them.

Nadeem Ali Rizvi, a solar energy consumer, said two types of solar panels were being sold in the market, one was large solar panel and the other was a smaller one to power lights and fans. He spent Rs22,000 on home lights, garden lights and street lights, which needed no wiring.

“My electricity bill has dropped 60%. Though the panel was costly, but my monthly savings will help me easily recover the money,” said Rizvi.


Bilal Ahmad, another solar energy consumer said that solar panels, especially small panels, were very economical. “They are cheaper than spending on a UPS or a generator.”

UPS increased the electricity bill by up to 40 per cent per month by charging batteries, he said, adding rising prices of fuel and electricity and load-shedding forced him to install solar panels

How many solar cells or panels would be provide electricity for my house?I need in order to provide all of the electricity that my house needs? Complete Range Specification of Solar Energy system for home

How many solar cells or panels would be provide electricity for my house?I need in order to provide all of the electricity that my house needs? Complete Range Specification of Solar Energy system for home

If you can read an article titled How HSW solar garden lights are working, you can get an idea of ​​how solar power can produce. Solar panels shown in this article contains 4 cells, and each can produce 0,45 V and 100 milliamp, or 45 milliwatts.Each cell measures 2 inches by 0.5 inches. In other words, these solar cells can generate 45 milliwatts in one square inch of paragraph 6.45 square centimeters).For the sake of argument, assume that the team can deliver 70 milliwatts per square centimeter.
To calculate how many square inches of solar panels you need for your home, you should know:
How much power consumed the house.
If the house is (so you can calculate the mean solar time, average rainfall, etc.). It is impossible to answer if you have a specific place in mind. We assume that daytime solar panels generate maximum power for 5 hours.


The first question is really interesting, so let's work on it.
"Typical home" in America can use electricity or natural gas for heating - heat the house, hot water, dryer and stove / oven. If you have a house with solar energy certainly use gas appliances because solar power is too expensive. This means that everything can be powered by solar energy are things like refrigerators, lighting, computer, television, stereo equipment, motors in things like fans, microwave and washing machine, etc. Assume that all these things mean to average 600 watts.Within 24 hours, require 600 W * 24 ώρες = 14,400 watts-hours a day.
According to the calculations and assumptions above, we know that solar panels could lead to 70 milliwatts per square inch * 5 hours = 350 hours per day MW.Therefore, you will need about 41,000 square centimeters of solar panels at home.This solar panel that measures about 285 square feet (about 26 m). It costs about $ 16,000 now. Then, because the sun shines only part time, you have to buy a battery bank, inverter, etc., and often doubles the cost of installation.


If you want a little air in the room, the bedroom, double everything.
Since solar energy is so expensive that normally go to great lengths to reduce electricity consumption. Instead of using desktop and laptop screen. Want to use instead of fluorescent lamps. You can use a little B & W TV instead of a wide range of colors. What can small, highly efficient refrigerators. Do these things may be able to reduce the average power to 100 watts. This will reduce the amount of solar panels and cost by a factor of six, and this may lead to the realm of possibilities.
However, the thing to remember is that 100 watt hours purchased by the network will cost about 24 cents per day or $ 91 years. So I can not see many solar homes, unless they are in very remote areas. When only costs about $ 100, to purchase electricity from the grid, it is difficult to justify spending thousands of dollars in the solar system.

How Do Solar Panels, Solar Cells and Solar Energy Work? Complete information about Solar system

How Do Solar Panels, Solar Cells and Solar Energy Work? Complete information about Solar system


There are many methods of solar energyproduction, with them being either direct or indirect, with active and passive components. In mainstream solar production, there are two methods which are currently used for solar energyconversion. Both of these involve the use of a solar panel, but their energy production means are a bit different. These two methods are known as solar thermal and photovoltaic energy cell production.As the electricity flows into your solar power electrical system, it is either used in your building or “sold” back to your electric utility service for later use. Your electric meter literally runs backwards when you are producing net energy and forward when you use it.
Your solar system produces more energy in the summer, when energy rates are highest, and you can bank excess energy credits to use when you need them within a one-year cycle. You only pay for your yearly net power usage.

How Do Solar Panels, Solar Cells and Solar Energy Work? Complete information about Solar system

With all the news about solar power lately, I thought it would be useful to go back to how PV solar panels work. (For a comprehensive look at some other solar power technologies, check out this piece: Hot Panels, Practical but Not Yet Popular – A Solar Overview.) The short description goes something…




Solar thermal energyThe short description goes something like this: Silicon is mounted beneath non-reflective glass to produce photovoltaic (PV) panels that collect photons from the sun and convert them into DC electrical power. That DC power then flows into an inverter, which transforms it into basic AC (alternating current) electrical power.

Okay, that’s the short and simple answer, but others may want more information. A useful website, Solar Home, offers an in-depth answer to the question, especially about one of the key materials, silicon.

Solar Home writes: “Silicon has four electrons in its outer shell. However, it has the capacity to hold eight. By sharing these four electrons with other silicon atoms and their four shell electrons, the capacity of eight is filled. When they combine with each other in this way, silicon atoms develop a strong, stable bond. This structure is known as pure, crystalline silicon.”

Pure silicon, however, is not a good conductor of electricity because there aren’t any electrons that are free to move. In other words, adds the author, “The silicon is better off with impurities.”

Photovoltaic energy
Thus, silicon is combined with an element such as phosphorus, which has five electrons to share. As a result, a negative charge is created. Silicon can only take four of the five electrons, leaving one free electron – called a free carrier – to carry an electrical current.

Other methods for manipulating silicon are also used. For instance, when silicon is combined with an element containing three electrons, a positive charge can be created. Boron is one material that suits this purpose. When silicon and boron are combined, holes are created.

“These silicon combinations and their differing charges are used to make solar panels. As photons come down from the sunlight and strike the silicon, it shakes everything up. The free electron that was hanging onto the silicon/phosphorous combination is now forced to the outer ring. From here, it gets sucked up to the outer ring of the silicon/boron combination. This is how electricity is created.”



how solar power works

Source: Clean Technica

As Solar Energy Is Alternative fuel Of Electricity? Home owners looking to find out more about residential solar systems and Easy Sources


As Solar Energy Is Alternative fuel Of Electricity? Home owners looking to find out more about residential solar systems and Easy Sources
کس شمسی توانائی کی گرفتاری کا نظام آپ کو آپ کے گھر پر ڈال کی قسم آپ کی ضروریات پر منحصر ہے. اگر آپ مکمل جھکاو کو جانا اور آپ کے گھر کی چھت اور سے استعمال کے قابل بجلی پیدا کرنا چاہتے ہیں طاقت بھی ممکنہ بڑے کو واپس کردار ادا گرڈ کی کوشش کی اور سچ photovoltaic arrays صرف ٹکٹ ہو سکتا ہے. A عام کی تنصیب پینل، ایک inverter، بجلی کی پائپ لائن کی پائپنگ اور AC / DC منقطع سوئچ کے ساتھ جو بہت سے انفرادی سلکان کی بنیاد پر photovoltaic خلیات اور ان کی حمایت کے ڈھانچے کی تعمیر کر رہے ہیں، شامل ہیں.
جیسا کہ زمین پر انسان کو سنجیدگی سے یوروپا اور Enceladus طرح برفیلی جہانوں مشن بھیجنے، ضروری خدشات میں سے ایک ماحول ہے جہاں اس طرح ایک مشن اترنے گا کے تحفظ ہو گیا ہے پر غور شروع کرتے ہیں. یہ صرف فوری طور پر زمین جرثوموں کے ساتھ اس کے بیجوں کے ایک دلچسپ اجنبی دنیا پر آنے کا، لاپرواہی سے مقامی ماحول کی انفیکشن منفرد سائنسی موقع کو برباد کرنے اور ممکنہ طور پر مقامی اجنبی حکمران کے غضب کو دیئے شرم کی بات ہو گی.
خلائی سائنس بورڈ کی طرف سے ایک نئے تشخیص لگتا ہے جس میں مقامات جرثوموں سے تحفظ کی ضرورت میں سب سے زیادہ ہیں - اسے یوروپا، Enceladus، ٹائٹن، اور Triton، نتیجہ اخذ کیا - اور کس طرح اور جہاں سب سے بہتر اندازہ کرنے کے لئے فیصلہ کرنے کے لئے طے کرتا ہے پروٹوکول کی ایک سیریز ہے اور خطرے سے نمٹنے کے.
COSPAR [کمیٹی نے خلائی تحقیق پر] ہدایات کی ضرورت ہے کہ 1 سے کم 10،000 مشن میں ایک قابل عمل جرثومہ ہے جو نظام شمسی کی منزل، یعنی پہنچے مشن کے مطابق آلودگی کی ایک 10-4 امکان پر بڑھ کرنے کے قابل ہے فراہم کرے گا. اس لازمی مقصد کو پورا کرنے میں ناکامی سے زیادہ سخت صفائی یا ٹرمینل bioload کمی وائکنگ مشن کی طرف سے ملازم کے مقابلے کے طریقہ کار کے لئے ضروریات کو مسلط کر سکتے ہیں. انتہائی صورتوں میں، سنتوش گرہوں کے تحفظ کی ضروریات کو خلائی جہاز redesign یا ایک پورے مشن کی منسوخی کی ضرورت ہو سکتی ہے


As Solar Energy Is Alternative fuel Of Electricity? Home owners looking to find out more about residential solar systems and Easy Sources 

What type of solar energy capture system you put on your home depends on your needs. If you want to go full tilt and generate usable electricity from your home's rooftop—and even possibly contribute power back to the larger grid—tried and true photovoltaic arrays might be just the ticket. A typical installation involves the panels, which are constructed of many individual silicon-based photovoltaic cells and their support structures, along with an inverter, electrical conduit piping and AC/DC disconnect switches

As Earth humans begin to seriously consider sending missions to icy worlds like Europa and Enceladus, one of the necessary concerns has to be protection of the environment where such a mission would land. It would be a shame to arrive on a fascinating alien world only to immediately seed it with Earth microbes, carelessly infecting the local ecosystem, ruining the unique scientific opportunity and possibly incurring the wrath of the local alien ruler.

A new assessment by the Space Science Board looks at which destinations are most in need of protection from microbes -- Europa, Enceladus, Titan, and Triton, it concludes -- and sets out a series of protocols for deciding how and where best to assess and deal with the risk.






Complete Information Method Of Solar Energy, Power, Electricity


Complete Information Method Of Solar Energy, Power, Electricity


Basic about Solar Energy, Solar Power and Solar Electricity.
In basic about solar energy, solar power and solar eletricity we will talk about the basic things behind this power. Formulas that will be used to find out which Solar Panel you should use and which battery you should select. And how much Solar Panels do you need to power up lights and other applications. Here are the main things you need to know and that will be used to calculate your needs.AC-DC system, Volt, Current(Ampere), Power(Watt), Resistance, Series and Parallel connecting.
AC-DC system 
Ac stands for Alternative Current. Alternative current is almost that we found in wall outlet or electric outlet. Clever say'd that we found in wall. It is 230 Volt. DC stands for Direct Current. In solar panels it is used 12 volt dc system. DC is that current we can found in cells, batteries, and using adapters or regulators. See the picture of a dell charger. Dell charger also converts AC Current to DC 5.4 Volt and 2410mA. Solar Panels also uses DC voltage and Current. 
Dell Charger
Power Circle
Power Circle
Volt
Voltage is the electromotive force (pressure) applied to an electrical circuit measured in volts (E).
Example. P=200W, I=4.0A. If we have a value of watt and ampere and we want to find out how much volt does it use then we should use this from Power Circle. E=P/I. 200/4.0=50V. So we found voltage is 50V.
Current
Current is the flow of electrons in an electrical circuit measured in amperes (I).
Example. P=100W, E=12V. We want to find out how much ampere does it use. We take a look at circle. I=P/E. 100/12=8.33A. Current usage is 8.33A.
Power
Power is the product of the voltage times the current in an electrical circuit measured in watts (P).
Example. E=220V, I=0,4A. This example is taken from picture of Dell Charger. We have 400mA=0,4A. Take a look at circle P=E*I. 220V * 0,4A=88W. Answer is dell charger use 88Watt.
Resistance
Resistance is the opposition to the flow of electrons in an electrical circuit measured in ohms (R). Increased resistance gives higher voltage and higher power(watt).
Example. E=12V, I=3.0A. We want to find out resistance. We use formula R=E/I. 12V/3.0A = 4 Ohm.
Parallel Connecting - 12V System 
Parallel Connecting solar panels gives higher current. And voltage will remain the same. Parallel Connecting is best for us. Because we do not need high voltage. Normal battery is 12v. And by selecting high voltage require higher voltage charge controller. To connect solar panels in parallel we have to connect plus + to plus and minus - to minus. See the picture for details. 
Parallel connected solar panels
Series Connecting - 24V System 
By connecting Solar Panels in series connection. It will increase Voltage and current Amps. will remain the same. To connect solar panels in series we have to connect plus + to - minus on next panel. See the picture for details. In this example we have connected 2 solar panels in series which will give 24v output. 
Series connected solar panels
Series and Parallel connected solar panelsSeries and Parallel Connecting - 24v System
If we are creating a 24v system. So then we have to connect two solar panels in series and connect two series connected panels in parallel as showed in figure under. Which increases voltage to 24v and when we have connected two other 24v connected solar panels in parallel so voltage remains same and increases current Amps. If we want to increase output current on 24v so we connect more solar panels in parallel same way under as shown in figure under. 

What is solar energy?

What is solar energy? 
Answer: Simply put, solar energy is the light produced by the sun

Basic Information about Solar Energy system and Sources Of Solar energy

The Source of Solar Energy To get technical, solar energy is the radiant energy that the sun produces. This is the result of a process called nuclear fusion - the joining of smaller atoms to form a larger atom.

The sun is a giant ball of gas consisting primarily of hydrogen and helium. Through nuclear fusion, hydrogen atoms in the sun's core combine to form helium atoms over and over again.
The Law of Conservation of EnergyEach time this nuclear fusion reaction takes place, the nuclei of four hydrogen atoms fuse to become one helium atom. However, the resulting helium atom has less mass than the four hydrogen atoms that fused with each other.

Does this mean that some matter is "lost" during the nuclear fusion process?

No, it isn't really lost.

Due to the law of conservation of energy, this "lost matter" is converted into the radiant energy that the sun emits into space.

You now have the answer to the question, "What is solar energy?" Let's take it a step further and see how solar energy travels to earth.
The Electromagnetic SpectrumOnce the sun emits this radiant energy into space, it makes its way to earth aselectromagnetic waves traveling at the speed of light. We perceive this solar radiation as light, but in fact it spreads over a wider band of wavelengths known as theelectromagnetic spectrum. The electromagnetic spectrum organizes electromagnetic energy by wavelength.
One misconception about the solar energy that reaches earth is that it includes the heat from the sun. In fact, the earth doesn't receive any heat from the sun since it's more than 93 million miles away! What actually happens is that when the radiant energy from the sun is absorbed by an object, its energy is converted into heat.
Solar Energy: The Ultimate Renewable EnergyThe sun produces a tremendous amount of energy. Every second, more than 4 million metric tons of hydrogen is converted into helium. But even at this rate, the sun will continue producing solar energy for another 5 billion years! As a result, solar energy is considered the ultimate renewable energy.

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